Varieties

How we take care of our trees

Introduction of new olive tree cultures

Common practice recommends the use of crops whose development and productivity have been tested in a 10-year experiment localised in the area of ​​interest. This concept and conservative principle resulted in more than 50% of the plants present in Uruguay today to be only of the Arbequina variety.

 

Despite the aforementioned concept, only 23% of the plants in Rincón Pandora are Arbequinas: this variety ensures proven productivity, good adaptation to local conditions, and a base of combinations with others oils. For this plantation, we focused on a productive, experimental, and diversified approach, so that 77% of the trees (more than 7000 plants) corresponds to new varieties for Uruguay. These are specific crops imported from Italy, internationally renowned for their productivity and quality. These have been present as specimens in the experimental garden of INIA Las Brujas for more than 10 years, but never before used this way.

Another important element is the use of pollinator varieties: cross pollination among olive crops is an indispensable requirement to guarantee fruit set, and ensure a good and constant production. These varieties are distributed in the plantation, according to a provision that manages to obtain its greatest efficiency in the dissemination of pollen.
 

The plants were imported from VIVERO PACINI of Pescia (Pistoia - Italy), specialised in olive production for more than a century, and member of the CO.RI.PRO (Consortium for the voluntary certification of olive plants ). These varieties have already been implanted and are evaluated in the INIA Experimental Field Introduction Garden in Las Brujas - Canelones, where they have stood out for their qualities.

Among more than 300 varieties present in the production of Italian nurseries, a set of four varieties has been chosen: Taggiasca, Frantoio, Leccino and Pendolino. These stand out for the ability to develop, acting jointly in the pollination phase.

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Taggiasca

(Liguria): it is a self-pollinatig variety, with a high and constant production, and a good resistance to all adversities. Its mono varietal oil represents one of the finest and most appreciated products in Italy and Europe; likewise, its table olives and olive paté are appreciated ingredients in the Mediterranean cuisine;

Frantoio

(Tuscany): it is a self-pollinating crop, with high and constant production. Very early, fruiting manifests itself even in plants kept in nurseries. Its pollinators are Pendolino, Maurino, Leccino. Its self pollinatig guarantees a high yield and its pollinator capacity is used in the production of other crops. It is also used as a table olive variety.

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Leccino

(Tuscany): variety of good and constant production. Its pollinators are: Pendolino, Maurino, Frantoio. Resistant to low temperatures, thermal fluctuations, fog, and diseases originating from wet weather. It is a very rustic variety, spread worldwide. Plants go into production early. It is just used as a table olive variety.

Pendolino

(Tuscany): it is a crop used for oil and widely adept as a pollinator, for its compatibility with other crop; It is a specific pollinator for the Frantoio, Leccino, Taggiasca varieties.

Variety Distribution

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The plants arrived in good condition, transported by air cargo in boxes of 200 units, kept at constant temperature, in TECU 7x7x10 pots. No absence of apical bud was observed which may have been caused by excess darkness, and the leaves were all present.

  

Distribution of the varieties by lots:

Variety             Approx number

Arbequina             2.130

Frantoio                1.450

Leccino                 1.650

Taggiasca             2.800

Pendolino                750

Coratina                  220

TOTAL                  9.000

Lot 1 has been chosen for Taggiasca as it is a crop used in Liguria (Italy) resistant to strong winds, in this case from the south, stony soil, and dry summers. Originally from Tuscany, Frantoio, Pendolino and Leccino adapt to colder and wetter continental climates. Leccino is the variety that withstands high levels of soil moisture.

The Arbequina variety has been placed in the most fertile area (CONEAT index) of the property, exposed to north winds, with one row of Coratina as a pollinating variety, every ten rows. Pendolino is found in the Taggiasca and Frantoio lots, in the proportion of one row every ten. For Leccino, pollinator is found in number of one row every eight.

New protection systems for plants

Traditionally, the measures for the protection of young plants consist in the placement of "leggings": plastic, tubular or stapled bags around the plant.

From a perspective of effective pest control and optimization of resources, TUBEX® tree protectors have been imported from England, 60 cm polycarbonate tubes, whose mechanical resistance, ease of application, and ability to create and maintain a favourable micro-climate to seedlings ensures excellent protection against rodents and ants. The protectors also prevent direct contact with pesticides and act against the effect of winds in the first two years of the plant's life, in addition to limiting the emission of suckers.

Plants are usually tied to the wooden tutor. In this case, since most of the plants do not exceed the height of the Tubex, the Tubex itself was secured to the tutor. As the plants grew in height the plants were secured to the tutor instead.